A timeline for King Charles I

1600

November 19 – Charles is born at Dumfermline, Scotland, shortly after midday. 

November 24 – Made Duke of Albany, Marquis of Ormonde, Earl of Ross, Lord Ardmonach.

December 23 – Charles is taken to Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh.  Here he is christened by the Biship of Ross.  He is made Duke of Albany, Marquis of Ormande, Earl of Ross, and Lord Ardmonach.  He stays here for three years.

1604

July 13 – Charles leaves Holyrood Palace for Windsor.

July 21 – Stays at Berwick.

August 8-12 – Stays at Worksop, Nottinghamshire, in the Earl of Shrewsbury’s house.  Here he takes part in his first hunt.

August 15 – Stays at Leicester. 

Early October – Meets his parents at Easton Neston, who take him to Windsor

1605

January – Made Duke of York.  This was Charles introduction to English society.

1606

Received honorary captaincy in the King of Frances’ bodyguard.

1611

April 24 – Made Knight of the Garter.

Late October – Frederick, the Elector Palatine, comes to England to court Charle’s sister Elizabeth.  Here begins a lifelong relationship between Charles and Frederick.

1612

November 6 – Charles brother, Henry, dies.  Charles is now heir to throne.

1613

St. Valentines Day – Frederick and Elizabeth are married.  Charles stays with the couple til they leave England in April.

1616

November – Charles is made Prince of Wales.

1619

March 2 – Anne of Denmark, his mother, dies.

Summer – becomes close friends with George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who he calls ‘Steenie’.  This name was started by Charles father, King James I, because he was supposed to have the angelic look of St. Stephen.

1621

January 20 – Charles attends first parliament.

1623

February 17 – He leaves with ‘Steenie’ to Spain to try to woo the King of Spain’s sister.

August 30 – Leaves Madrid

End of 1623 – Charles gives up on the King of Spain’s sister.

1624

February – Negotiations started to marry Henrietta Maria, the sister of King Louis XIII of France.

May 7 – Impeachment of Cranfield.

Attends another parliament.

November 10 – Marriage treaty made with France.

1625

March 27 – King James I, Charles father, dies.  Charles becomes king.

May 1 (May Day), sunday – Marriage by proxy to Henrietta Maria of France.  The marriage takes place at Notre Dame cathedral in Paris.

May 22 – Henrietta Maria leaves Paris for England to meet her husband.  She is delayed for over a month for various reasons.

May 31 – Charles leaves London to meet wife.   He stays at Canterbury for two days.  Because of her delay Charles got very impatient.

June 2 – Charles stays at Dover Castle for about four days and returns to Canterbury. 

June 12 – Henrietta Maria boards the Prince at Boulogne at eight in the morning.  At eight that night she lands in England and stayed at Dover Castle.

June 13 – Charles hears of Henrietta Marias arrival and leaves for Dover, meeting her later that day.

June 16 – They both arrive in London.

June 18 – Charles first parliament as King begins.

Mansfield expedition takes place

October 8 – Cadiz expedition begins

November 14 – Cadiz expedition returns

1626

February 2 – Charles coronation in Westminster Abbey. 

February 5 – Charles second parliament begins.  The events before the opening of Parlilament got Charles and Henrietta Maria in one of their disputes so much that they did not sleep together for some days.

Summer – Ship money requested from coastal counties to help pay for expeditions and defense.

Summer – King issues orders for practice with weapons so an effective militia will be created.  Dut to various reason, this order will not be carried out that well by the country. 

July – First forced loan requested to pay for expeditions and defense.  The result was about 1000 pounds from 4 sources.

July 31 – Charles informs Henrietta Maria that he wanted all her “attendants, priests, and others” to leave England.  This was primarily due to thier continual insistence of maintaining their Catholic customs and the problems it caused in the Protestant country of England.  Later, Charles allowed some to return and stay in England.

August 12 – The bulk of Henrietta Maria’s French servants left Dover for France.

October 20 – Second forced loan requested to pay for expeditions and defense.  This prooved very successful, pulling in about four times what they expected.  Even then, it was not sufficient to pay the expenses for the military.

1627

Rhe expedition starts.

October – Rhe expedition fails.

1628

January 28 – Writ issued for Parliament in March.  King is reluctant to call Parliament but is overcome by arguments from the Council because of the problems they had trying to finance previous military expeditions.

February 11 – Ship money requested from inland counties to help pay for expeditions and defense.

February 16 – Ship money request retracted, probably due to its unlawful nature nor was there any precedent for this request.  King Charles said he would “rely on the love of our people in parliament”, which prooved inadequate to finance any military endeavors. 

March 17 – Charles third parliament begins.  In general, most of Parliament agreed they would not supply funding until their liberties and property were secured.  Much of this concern was a result of the experience of the problems and abuses that were created by the former expeditions.

March – A military expedition is sent to La Rochelle to help the Protestants there.  It is led by Denbigh.  It leaves after Parliament begins and returns, a failure, before parliament ends its debate.

March 28 – The King tells Parliament that he will rule “according to the laws and statutes of the realm”.

June 2 – Charles gives his first response to the Petition of Right.

June 3 – Sir John Eliot begins to tell the Commons that the sorry state of England was basically a result of the Duke of Buckingham.  The Commons prepares a Remonstrance against him.

June 7 – Charles accepts the Petition of Right.  A big part of the Petitition of Right is that it outlaws the billeting of soldiers, martial law, and imprisonment without cause, which are problems created by the previous military expeditions.  As a result of the Petition of Right, Parliament votes 5 subsidies.  This is only about a quarter of what the King needed for the military expeditions.

August 28 – The Duke of Buckingham is assassinated in Portsmouth, outside the inn he was staying in called the Greyhound Inn.  He was stabbed in the heart with a knife, by John Felton.  His last word:  “villain!”

1629

March 13 – Charles and Henrietta’s first child is born stillborn:  Charles James.  He died March 13, 1629.  The child was born feet first after Henrietta Maria was frightened by some dogs.

1630

May 29 – Second child born:  Charles (the future Charles II).  He died February 6, 1685.

1631

November 4 – Third child born:  Mary.  She died December 24, 1660.

1633

Laud is made Primate.

King accepts he cannot influence European politics.  He wanted to try to help prevent the thirty years war going on at the time.

June 18 – crowned King of Scotland in Edinburgh.

October 14 – Fourth child is born:  James (the future James II).  He died September 16, 1701.

1634

Ship money extended to inland counties

1635

December 29 – Fifth child born:  Elizabeth.  She died September 8, 1650.

1637

March 17 – Sixth child is born:  Anne.  She died December 8, 1640.

1638

February 19 –  Scots Covenent decide to fight prayer book.

May 26 – Duke of Hamilton leaves for Scotland.

1639

January 29 – Seventh child born stillborn:  Catherine.  Died January 29, 1639.

March – Charles leaves for Scotland

June 11 – Negotiations with Scots begins.

September 13 – Stafford called to London

December 5 – Charles calls parliament to open next April.

1640

April 13 – Charles fourth parliament begins.  This is the ‘short parliament’.

April 17 – John Pym speaks at the parliament.

May 5 – Charles closes parliament.

July 8 – Eighth child is born:  Henry.  He died September 18, 1660.

September 24 – Grand Council of Peers.

November 3 – Charles fifth parliament begins.  This is the ‘long parliament’.

1641

March 22 – Stafford’s trial begins

May 12 – Stafford is executed at the Tower of London.

August 9 – Charles leaves for Scotland.

November 18 – Charles travels back to London.

October 23 – Irish wars begin

1642

January 3 – Five Members of Parliaments are tried for treason by Charles.

January 10 – Charles leaves London.

April 23 – Charles is not admitted at Hull.

August 12 – Charles declares war.

October 23 – Battle of Edgehill.

1643

January 11 – Peace talks with Irish.

April 14 – Treaty of Oxford

1644

April 17 – Henrietta Maria leaves.  This is the last time they see each other.  She is pregnant and sick when she leaves.

January 30 – Peace talks at Uxbridge begin.

February 24 – Peace talks at Uxbridge end.

June 16 – Ninth child is born:  Henrietta.  She died June 30, 1670.

1645

January 10 – Archbishop Laud is executed.

June 14 – Charles is defeated at Naseby.

July 18 – ‘The Kings Cabinet  opened’ published by Parliament.  After the battle of Naseby many of Charles papers are captured on the battlefield by Parliamentary troops

1646

May – The Royalist armies are reduced to a few strongholds.  King Charles realizes he is in a desparate situation.

April 27 – Leaves Oxford secretly at three in the morning in the hopes of getting help from the Scots.

May 13 – Scots take him to the Mayors house in Newcastle after arriving in Newark a few days before.  It’s about this time he realizes he’s a prisoner.

May 17 – Scots debate with King Charles and try to convert him to Presbytarianism. 

June – King Charles starts to feel he needs to escape to the continent. 

Christmas – Charles attempts to escape from Newcastle on a ship sent over by William of Orange but fails.

1647

Late January – Scots tell him they are going to leave him in England and go back to Scotland.

February 3 – Charles leaves Newcastle.  Travels to Durham, Richmond,  and  to Leeds, Nottinghamshire.   He meets General Fairfax.  He stays in Holdenby House.  Here he is made a prisoner again.

June 2 – Ensign George Joyce comes to take King Charles. 

June 3 – They leave Holdenby House at 6 in the morning.  After King Charles asks him by what authority he is being taken away, Ensing Joyce gives no proof.  They travel to Huntingdon and stayed at Hunchingbrooke House and then to Childersley.

June 9 – At Newmarket for a fornight.  Here the army took over.

June 24 – Stayed at Royston.

June 25 – Stayed at Hatfield House.

July 3 – Stayed at Caversham.

Late July – Parliament presented proposals which were deliverd by the Heads of the Proposals.  Charles was moved to Oatlands Palace.

August 24 – Charles is moved to Hampton Court.

September – Charles turns down Parliaments peace terms.

Late October – Charles decides to escape.

November 7 – Charles plans his escape, with several people to help him, and decides to stay in southern England.  They feel its best to try to see if he can stay on the Isle of Wight.  This way, he’d remain in England, but could escape to the Continent quickly, if needed.

November 11, thursday – Charles escapes Hampton Court in the early evening by taking a back stairway.  He left two notes on his desk:  One note to Wholley, who was the guard in charge, and one note to Parliament.

November 12 – to Bishops Sutton in the morning, then travels near Southampton.  Here two men (Berkely and Ashburham) go to the Isle of Wight to prepare King Charles arrival.  King Charles waits in Titchfield.  Berkely and Ashburham talks with Hammond who allows the King to stay at Carisbrooke Castle.

December – King Charles travels to Cowes then to Carisbrooke Castle.  The King quickly starts to corresponds with Parliament and the Scots.  Parliament, knowing where he is, tightens security.  The King starts to realize he may become a prisoner again.  He plans escape again.  He’s about to escape but notices that the wind has changed, which is not favourable for sailing.  He waits for it to change.  Meanwhile Parliament brings more soldiers making it unable for him to escape.  He is now a prisoner.

December 26 – King Charles makes aggreement with Scots Coventers.

1648

March 27 – King Charles tries to escape from Carisbrooke Castle by squeezing through the bars on his window at night.  He thought he could squeeze through but found he could not. 

Early April – King Charles is moved to a new room.

Early May – King Charles tries another escape by squeezing through bars again but couldn’t.

May 28 – Another escape attempt.  Guards are bribed to allow him to escape but two tell Hammond of the King’s intention. 

September 18 – Newport talks.

November 16 – Decision is made to bring King Charles I to justice.

November 30 – The army takes charge of Charles.

November 31 – The army takes Charles to Hurst Castle.

December 6 – The army purges parliament.

December 19 – Charles is taken to Windsor.

December 23 – House of Commons create committee to determine how King should be tried.

December 29 – Committee agreed upon.

1649

January 1 – Ordinance of Kings trial submitted.

January 2 – House of Lords rejects ordinance.

January 4 – House of Common votes that they are the source of power and that Parliament represents the people.

January 6 – House of Commons creates a Parliamentary Act that sets up High Court for the trial of King Charles I.

January 8 – High Court is opened.

January 9 – Trial of King Charles I is publicly announced.

January 10 – Trial is opened.

January 19 – King Charles is brought to London.

January 20 – Draft of charges of King Charles I is completed.  The trial of King Charles I begins.

January 25 – 46 commissioners sentence King Charles I to death.

January 27 – King Charles I is sentenced to death.

January 30 – King Charles I is beheaded in front of the Banqueting House at Whitehall, London.

February 1 – King is embalmed by Thomas Trapham at Whitehall Palace.  He was later taken to St. James Palace.

February 7 – Taken to Windsor Palace.

February 9 – Queen Henrietta Maria learns she is a widow.  She is told this by Henry, Lord Jermyn, at the Louvre in Paris, France.  They stalled for over an hour as no one wanted to tell her.  They knew it would devestate her.

February 9 – Body taken to St. Georges Chapel where the funeral takes place.  While being taken there it begins to snow.  King Charles I is laid to rest in the same tomb as King Henry VIII in the floor of St. Georges Chapel.

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